In the field of Electromobility, there are some terms that are not necessarily self-explanatory or known to everyone. We provide the explanations for these in our has·to·be glossary on eMobility.
CEE rotary power connectors or CEE plugs are colloquially the most common connectors according to the IEC 60309 standard. In Europe, the red 400-V rotary power plugs or the blue 230-V plugs are mostly used in the camping branch.
Denotes a virtual energy account for electricity or gas.
|Accounting Grid Manager||
The Accounting Grid Manager (in German BKV) is responsible for a balanced balance sheet between income and withdrawals of a balance sheet. At the same time, it forms the interface between network users and network operators, and ultimately assumes economic responsibility for deviations between income and withdrawals of a balance sheet.
|Balance Sheet Coordinator||
The Balance Sheet Coordinator (in German BIKO) is tasked with balancing all incomes and withdrawals in the energy bill account and ensures a balance sheet settlement.
|Battery Management System||BMS||Each electric vehicle (EV) has a BMS to monitor the battery.|
The calibration is the testing of a measuring device in relation to the commercial regulations according to the MessEG. It is mandated by legislature. If the test is positive, there is a calibration approval with an expected validity period.
|Charge de Move||CHAdeMO||
The CHAdeMO is a Japanese standard fast charging system made up of “CHArge de MOve”, which is freely translated from Japanese and is supposed to mean “How about a cup of tea?”
|Charge Detail Record||CDR||
Denotes the transmission and receipt of billing-relevant data from charging operations.
|Charge Point Operator / Charging Station Operator||CPO||
The Charge Point Operator operates one or more charging stations on its own account and is therefore responsible for the installation, operation and service thereof.
A CPO is a company that operates charging stations operationally and provides customers or third parties with access to these charging stations.
has·to·be acts as a CPO to the EMP within the meaning of the contract.
In principle, there are two types of charging column – fast DC charging columns and slower AC charging columns. In addition, there are fast charging stations with direct current and high charging power, such as the 170 kW from CCS Systems, and in the private sector also so-called Wallboxes. These usually provide the standard 230-V household current, but unlike the normal socket deliver a permanently even 16 Amps.
|Charging column regulation||
Since March 2016, the charging column regulation (in German LSV) has regulated the minimum technical requirements for electricity filling stations in Germany. It also defines the requirements for the operators of public charging stations (in public transport areas but also the majority of customer and company parking areas).
|Charging Columns, AC||
AC charging columns are charging columns that are equipped with normal alternating current (AC). As a rule, the power of an AC charging column is 11 kW (at 400 V and 28 A).
Typical standards for AC charging with 230 V AC are Schuko, CEE-Caravan, HPC (Tesla Roadster), IEC Type 1 and IEC Type 2. Since only small charging power is transmitted, a charging process takes a very long time:
Typical standards for AC charging with 400 V rotary current are the CEE rotary power plug and IEC type 2 connector, which means that you can achieve a higher charging power and thus faster charging speeds:
|Charging Columns, DC||
DC charging columns are operated with direct current (DC) and are often referred to as fast charging columns because they can transmit high performance in a short period of time.
As a rule, the power with a voltage of 450 V and a current strength of up to 150 A is between 20 and 60 kW. Typical standards for DC charging are CHAdeMO and IEC Type 2. The charging power is very high and thus allow maximum speed:
The term “charging infrastructure” covers all technical installations that enable the supply to electric vehicles (EVs) – this includes electricity parking spaces, charging points and access and billing options.
|Charging Infrastructure, private||
A private charging infrastructure is privately owned on areas that are not accessible to the public, e.g. situated on company land.
|Charging Infrastructure, public||
A charging infrastructure can be described as public when it makes charging in public spaces (e.g. public streets and squares) accessible to everyone.
|Charging Infrastructure, Semi-public||
A semi-public charging infrastructure covers charging options on privately owned publicly accessible areas, e.g. supermarket parking or in car parks.
|Charging Management System||
The charging management system (in German LMS) is an IT system for controlling a charging process. For example, it regulates optimisation when multiple EVs charge at the same time and ensures that KW limits are not exceeded as a result.
A charging column can have multiple charging points, but only one vehicle can be charged at a time at each charging point.
A charging process means connecting a vehicle to the charging station provided by the CSO for at least 2 minutes or a minimum consumption of 0.1 kWh.
Operations that fall below these limits are referred to as faulty charging operations and are not billed. EMP Framework Agreement "Managed Community" "be.ENERGISED" has·to·be gmbh Page 2 / 6 Rev. No. 2 has·to·be provides with the application "ChargeMobile" a mobile website which can be called up via mobile terminals and which enables charging processes to be carried out with a payment option without registration by the end customer.
A charging station belongs to a Charging Station Owner (CSO) and is a system for charging electrically powered vehicles. The charging station can have one or more charging connections (CP, Charge Point or Connector).
|Charging Station Owner||CSO||
A charging station owner is a company that owns one or more charging stations.
|Charging Station with non-discriminatory access||
Fundamentally, non-discriminatory access to a charging station means that the charging point is open to the public and that every vehicle user can really get access.
|Combined Charging System||CCS||
The CCS is a combined fast charging system according to European standards, with standardised charging processes and plug variants. It is often called “Combo 2”. A CCS connector can deliver direct or alternating current. The combined AC/DC connector system (or Combo 2 or CCS connector) is compatible with the IEC Type 2 connector system.
|Connectee / subscribers||
The connectee either owns a piece of land or a building which is connected to the energy supply network, or commissions a natural or legal person to connect to the supply network.
The end consumer who is entitled to use the network connection.
The CP is one of two signal contacts through which an electric vehicle (EV) is detected and the charging process is controlled. The second signal contact is the Proximity Pilot (PP).
|Distribution Network Operator||
The Distribution Network Operator (in German VNB) has the task of distributing electricity and is responsible for the operation, maintenance and distribution network expansion where necessary. This can be a natural or legal person, or a legally independent organisation. The VNB is responsible for connecting charging points to the network.
A vehicle powered by electric power (battery) or plug-in hybrid.
|Electric Vehicle Operator||EVO||
Operates and maintains the electric vehicle (EV) on an ongoing basis and pays for the charging processes and operating costs. The vehicle operator can be a natural or legal person.
|Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment||EVSE||
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment is an umbrella term for all technical components of a charging station or charging point.
The electricity supplier sources energy in wholesale and sells it to end and large customers.
|Electromobility (Service) Provider||MSP||
An Electromobility Provider is a provider of charging services at the contractual level. It thus provides access to charging stations for vehicle users via charging cards or Apps.
|E-Mobility User or End Consumer||EMU||
The term EMU refers to the driver (=end consumer) who carries out a charging process at a charging station. A driver may have several identification media at his disposal (customer card, telephone number, NFC tag, user name, etc.).
An EMP refers to a company that acts as an e-mobility provider and provides end customers with access to charging stations. It is irrelevant whether these charging stations are own or third-party charging stations. A contractual relationship between EMP and the CSO is not established with the contract, the EMP enters into a contractual relationship with has·to·be gmbh (CPO).
The person who buys the energy for their own consumption. In terms of Electromobility, 3 types of end consumers can be distinguished:
Users of a household connection:
Charging point operators:
|Energy Economy Law||
Electricity and gas supply laws (in German EnWG)
E-Roaming refers to the exchange of data between different charging infrastructure operators and mobility providers, giving vehicle users access to charging stations from different providers. The charging costs are billed at the end between the end customer, the mobility provider and the charging station operator.
Fleet management refers to the management and control of vehicle fleets. The main challenge in Electromobility is to ensure maximum availability and utilisation of vehicles, considering charging times.
|Gateway Administrator, (Smart Meter)||GWA||
As a measuring station operator or on their behalf, the GWA ensures the technical operation of an intelligent measuring system. The GWA exists in Electromobility only as soon as one or more energy economy metres are involved in a charging process.
In addition, these metres must also be part of an intelligent measurement system (iMSys), which means that they are also connected to a Smart Metre Gateway (SMGW). The GWA can be a natural or legal person.
|Intelligent Measurement System||iMSys||
An Intelligent Measurement System consists of a modern measuring device (digital metre, also called smart metre) and the Smart Metre Gateway as a communication unit. Intelligent measurement systems support secure and standardised communication in the energy networks.
M2M refers to a fully automated exchange of information between devices, such as a charging station and EV. The exchange can take place with each other or via a central control centre.
|Measurement and Calibration Law||
Law (in German MessEG) on the implementation and provision of measuring devices on the market, their use and calibration, as well as ready-made packaging.
According to Measurement and Calibration Law, all devices or device systems count as measurement devices when they are equipped with a measuring function. These must serve for business transactions.
|Measurement Value User||
The measurement value user is the economic player who uses the measurement results of a measuring device in business transactions, e.g. for the purpose of billing. They are regulated in the Measurement and Calibration Law.
|Measuring Device User||
A measuring device user uses or provides one or more measuring devices to business transactions. This role is defined in the Measurement and Calibration Law.
|Measuring Point Operating Law||
Defines the “Law on measurement point operations and data communication in intelligent energy networks” (in German MsBG), which was introduced in 2016. This law was enacted to regulate the market for the operation of measuring points and the equipping of the performance-based energy supply with modern measuring devices and intelligent measuring systems.
|Measuring Point Operator||
“Measuring point” (in German MSB) refers to the point between the network and the customer system at which the electricity consumed is measured (the electricity metre, so to speak). In Electromobility, a measuring point operation is provided when the charging point or the electric vehicle (EV) is directly or indirectly connected to an energy supply network. A measuring point operator installs, operates and then maintains one or more such measuring points.
|Mobile Metering System||MMS||
Mobile metering refers to energy measurement using a mobile power metre. This system also takes place when charging processes for electro vehicle are being created.
The network user feeds energy into or draws energy out of an electricity network and pays the fees for ongoing operation. This can be a natural or legal person.
|Original Equipment Manufacturer / Automobile Manufacturer||OEM||Manufacturer and seller of vehicles, vehicle parts and related services. However, there are also business models where the OEM remains the owner of the battery and only rents it out.|
The PP is another signal contact in addition to the Control Pilot (CP). It determines to what extent the power capability of the charging cable is guaranteed and at the same time activates the drive immobiliser.
A reporting network records and reports events perceived through infrastructure operator sensors.
|Roaming Charging Medium||
A roaming charging medium is an RFID card or other identification medium of a roaming partner with which the end customer has access to the charging station of the CSO.
|Roaming Network Operator||RNO||
The RNO operates a platform for the exchange of charging data between Charge Point Operators (CPOs) and Electromobility Service Providers (EMPs).
|Smart Meter Gateway||SMGW||
The Smart Metre Gateway is part of an intelligent measurement system and forms the communication unit that receives measurement data from metres, and which then further processes it for other participating market players.
|State of Charge / Charging State of a battery||SOC||The SOC is a measure of battery charge. This allows you to see how much capacity is still available.|
Has purchased or has in their possession the vehicle; may deviate from the vehicle operator (e.g. when leasing). The vehicle owner may be a natural or legal person.
|Vehicle User||The person who drives the vehicle.|